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In 2013, with input from DV experts and practitioners, the physical DV survey item was revised to add frequency of experiencing such victimization.
Additionally, an item that asked specifically about sexual DV and had the same response choices was added, which allowed students to report how many times they had experienced such victimization.
Stratifying by sex category identifies some subtle but important differences.
Among boys, there is an association of lifetime NMUPD with sexual violence victimization, whereas among girls, lifetime NMUPD is associated with physical DV victimization.
The abusive partner may use a combination of behaviors, such as verbal abuse and emotional abuse, or physical and sexual abuse.
Verbal and emotional abuse can happen in person, online, or through text messages.
Thus, early-onset mental disorders may predispose youth to NMUPD as well as DV victimization.
Positive youth development approaches known to reduce adolescent substance abuse and violence may be especially pertinent for tackling this nexus of NMUPD and DV victimization.Verbal and emotional abuse can be much harder to recognize than physical or sexual assault, but they are no less damaging.In fact, abusive relationships often start as emotionally or verbally abusive and can quickly escalate into physical or sexual violence.Because sexual minority youth have a higher prevalence of violence victimization as well as substance use, sexual minority status may be relevant.However, in this study the association of NMUPD with DV victimization remained even after adjusting for sexual identity, suggesting other potential mechanisms to explain this relationship.