Validating ze drying

One of the major problems reported clinically for photosensitizers (PS) in Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is, the cause of side-effects to normal tissue due to dark toxicity.

So in this study, we have developed a nano drug delivery system called Phloroglucinol Succinic acid (PGSA) dendrimer, entrapped a photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (Pp IX) inside the system and investigated whether the photodynamic efficacy of the anionic surface charged dendrimer-Pp IX nano formulation is enhanced than achieved by the free Pp IX in He La cancer cell lines.The grain growth analysis results revealed that the Al-doping is effective to restrain the severe grain growth of silver films.The Auger electron spectroscopy results revealed that the outer diffusion of aluminum and the formation of Al-O bond at the outermost silver layer which is beneficial to retard the Ag grain growth.The change of crystalline structure of copper atoms was observed before it had been already at melting point.The optimum annealing temperature was obtained to get the highest percentage of fcc structure on copper film catalyst substrate.

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